An automatic response based on a person's subconsciously held value-judgments.

Emotions are sometimes viewed as an alternative means of knowing the world. "I just feel it" is used as proof of one's conclusions, with the hidden premise that emotions have some direct connection to the truth. Sometimes, emotions are viewed as irrational whims of the subconscious, properly ignored or repressed.

Emotions are usually viewed as irreducible primaries, meaning you can't understand the causes for them, break them up, or further understand them. They are treated as a given that just needs to be accepted, and can't be explained.

In fact, emotions are the result of past reasoning and value-judgments, subconsciously applied to a new situation. Emotions are the conclusion of value-judgments. When one identifies something that is seen as beneficial, one feels positive emotions like love. When one sees something harmful, fear is the response. When one identifies someone as destructive to ones values, they feel hate. When a loved one is damaged, one feels empathy or compassion. Each is the effect of judging something as a value or disvalue.